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Coleoptera of Great Smoky Mountains National Park Species Pages

Family Staphyliniade

            Subfamily Oxyporinae

 Oxyporus (s. str.) major Gravenhorst

Description and Taxonomy

Length 8-12.5mm. The genus belongs to the monotypic subfamily Oxyporinae, a distinctive group of Staphylinidae that are easily recognizable by large, robust bodies, long, sickle-shaped prognathous mandibles, and extremely large, crescent-shaped terminal segments of the labial palpi (Campbell 1969).  The genus is almost worldwide in distribution and contains two subgenera, Oxyporus s. str. and Pseudoxyporus, with three and eight species, respectively, in eastern North America. The subgenus Oxyporus s. str. can be recognized by strongly compressed broad antennomeres with wide broad glabrous, shining medial areas (Campbell 1969). The species key was provided by Campbell (1979). See O. kiteley Page for diagnostic features.

Life History

All Oxyporus species are mycophagous on various fleshy fungi, both as adult and larval stages. These fungi belong to three orders within the class Hymenomycetes: Agaricales (gilled mushrooms), Boletales (bolete mushrooms) and Polyporales (polypore mushrooms) (Hanley & Goodrich 1995). Females may construct and protect special chambers where the eggs hatch (Newton et al. 2000). Immature stages of O. major were described by Goodrich & Hanley (1995). This species is known to feed on seven genera in six families of fungi (Hanley & Goodrich 1995). The specimens from GSMNP were collected using flight intercept traps near the Purchase Knob ATBI plot from late July-mid August at 1300 m elevation. 

Distribution

Widely distributed in eastern North America, from Indiana and New Hampshire to Arkansas and Alabama (Campbell 1969).

Conservation Concerns

Not under threat.

 

Locality records in GSMNP.

Acknowledgements

Development of these pages was supported by grants from Discover Life in America and the National Science Foundation (DEB-0516311).

References

Campbell, J.M. 1969. A revision of the New World Oxyporinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Canadian Entomologist 101: 225-268.

Campbell, J.M. 1978. New species of Oxyporus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) from North America. Canadian Entomologist 110: 805-813.

Goodrich, M.A. &  R.S. Hanley. 1995. Biology, development and larval characters of Oxyporus major (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Entomological News 106: 161-168.

Hanley, R.S. & M.A. Goodrich. 1995. Review of mycophagy, host relationships and behavior in the New World Oxyporinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 49: 267-280.

Newton, A.F., M.K. Thayer, J.S. Ashe & D.S. Chandler. 2000. Staphylinidae. Pp. 272-418 in: Arnett, R.H & M.C. Thomas (eds.) American Beetles. Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton - London - New York - Washington.

 

Posted 7 Feb. 2007, A. K. Tishechkin, Louisiana State Arthropod Museum.

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